In 2011 I began a series of explorations using sumi-e ink, gold paint, and touches of red to create abstract calligraphic images reflective of turbulent wave forms. I found the materials to be compelling, with the sumi-e ink proving malleable and responsive to blotting, water, and scrubbing. My first small studies gradually led to a series of larger drip paintings on paper and canvas centered on the concept of creating visual prayers.