In 2011 I began a series of explorations on 8"x10" canvas boards using sumi-e ink, gold paint, and touches of red to create abstract calligraphic images reflective of turbulent wave forms. I found the results to be compelling, with the sumi-e ink proving malleable and responsive to blotting, water, and scrubbing. The smaller studies gradually led to a series of larger drip paintings on paper and canvas centered on the concept of creating visual prayers.